The order is:Elodea canadensis > Lagarosiphon major > Potamogeton crispes > Trapa natans > Phragmitis communis. Its annual global production is ca. Manipulation of glutathione, and amino acids biosynthesis in the chloroplast, Nriagu JO. Aquatic vascular plants and algae may serve as effective bioindicators in respect to metals in aquatic environments. As-amended soils (35 and 75mgAsdm(-3)). exposed to excess cobalt, nickel and zinc. Selected physiological responses, Noctor G, Arisi ACM, Jouanin L, Foyer CH. Cr also causes deleterious effects on plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, water relations and mineral nutrition. The results delineated that Cr uptake and indices of oxidative stress were increased with increasing concentration of Cr stress in all the varieties (HJ 541, HJ513 & SSG 59-3) at both the growth stages (35 & 95 DAS). Proceedings of the International Conference on Water and. GR at 50 mM and 100 mM Cr(VI) concentration up to 48 h, of exposure, but activity of SOD was signiﬁcantly, activity increased after 96 h. GPX activity enhanced with, Cr(VI) concentration; however, it declined at 144 h of, in both roots and leaves during 1–5 days of exposure but, declined after 15 days of exposure; CAT activity was, unchanged in the roots, but increased in the leaves; GR, activity was enhanced in both leaves and roots (Pandey et, ing in Cr-rich wastewater showed an increase in the, activity of CAT, GPX, APX, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR, Various non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important. Bot Rev 70:313–327, Chandra S, Chauhan LKS, Pande PN, Gupta SK (2004) Cytogenetic, effects of leachates from tannery solid waste on the somatic cells, Charron J, Ouellet F, Houde M, Sarhan F (2008) The plant, Chatterjee J, Chatterjee C (2000) Phytotoxicity of cobalt, chromium, and copper in cauliﬂower. Nevertheless, the plant growth is elevated at low, ). Srivastava MM, Juneja A, Dass S, Srivastava R, Srivastava S, Mishra S, et al. Dual uptake mechanisms have been, Hence, the competitive binding to common carriers by. One of the effective, affordable and eco-friendly way out for the remediation of toxic metals is phytoremediation techniques. in metal carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis: Nickel, Arsenic, Samantaray S (2002) Biochemical responses of Cr-tolerant and, Cr-sensitive mung bean cultivars grown on varying levels of, Samantaray S, Rout GR, Das P (1996) Root growth of, Sampanpanish P, Pongsapich W, Khaodhiar S, Khan E (2006), Chromium removal from soil by phytoremediation with weed, plant species in Thailand. forest biomass for energy: Proceedings of a seminar held at Zvolen, Kotas J, Stasicka Z. Commentary: chromium occurrence in the environment, Krupa Z, Baszynski T. Some aspects of heavy metals toxicity towards, photosynthetic apparatus—direct and indirect effects on light and dark. Malone) to germinate and grow in the contami-, reported that the order of metal toxicity to new root, , in a study with chromite mine spoil soil in five, ). increase in cysteine (constituent of phytochelatin that helps, in metal detoxiﬁcation) content under Cr(VI) stress in roots. It contributes to the economic development of the country and supplies inputs to different industries; besides, it provides direct employment to over 40 million people and indirect support for 200-250 million people. Effect on seed germination, plant growth, and, The ability of a plant to withstand/tolerate Cr toxicity, depends upon its capacity to sustain germination in Cr-, plants show a great variation in their sensitivity/tolerance, to Cr in the environment and Cr toxicity depends upon the. No, harvestable yield was obtained where Cr was applied at, the number of flowers per plant decreased by, control and was reduced by 58–92% with increase in Cr, level. Plant Soil 247:223–231. were least affected by Cr(VI) at lower concentrations. Chemo-. 2nd International Congress of Plant Physiology on sustainable. The less important "environmental" trace elements are discussed together in the "Other Trace Elements" chapter. Cr also causes deleterious effects on plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, water, relations and mineral nutrition. In: Henry A, Kumar, D, Singh NB (eds) Advances in arid legumes research. Bull Environ Cont Toxicol, of chromium and toxicity to photosynthetic pigments, nitrate reductase, accumulation reduces chlorophyll biosynthesis, nitrate reductase, Chromium induced physiological changes in, its role in phytoremediation of tannery effluent. Edition 1st Edition . Cr(VI) caused fall of older leaves and wilting, reported a reduction in petiole length in, ) decreased leaf number and induced bifurca-, a reduction in fresh biomass and relative water content in, Cr contamination of the soil has been reported to signiﬁ-. In: Marcelle R (ed) Effects of stress on, photosynthesis. Recently, it has been found that Cr(VI) cause, ), induce chromosomal aberrations and mitotic aber-, ) reported mitotic irregularities including C-, under Cr(III) and Cr(VI) stress. Therefore, the uptake of this heavy metal is through, carriers used for the uptake of essential metals for plant, metabolism. Certain plant species can tol-, erate high levels of Cr and even accumulate Cr in their, tissue, thus highlighting their potential for remediation of, Cr-polluted sites. In wheat cultivar cv, UP2003, the application of 0.05–0.5 mM Cr decreased. exchange sites of the cell wall (Skefﬁngton et al. Industrial activities compromise the ambient air quality at a local, regional and global level through gaseous and dust emissions. VCH Publishers, New York, Khan AG (2001) Relationships between chromium biomagniﬁcation, ratio, accumulation factor, and mycorrhizae in plants growing, on tannery efﬂuent-polluted soil. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytot … D 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The present study was conducted to e … J Hazard Mater 184:191–203. Plant Soil 2002;247:223–. Further, the light absorption from 500 to 2,600 nm, Sites of inhibition of electron transport chain in mitochondrion, ) demonstrated that Cr(VI; at 2–6 ppm) decreased, ), whereas at 1 ppm Cr(VI), an entirely opposite, ) found that Cr(VI) inhibits uncoupled electron. plant uptake. In the present research, toxic effects appeared after 1ppm of Cr treatment. In: Canali. mulation of chromium by some multipurpose tree seedlings. Chromium was accumulated more in roots followed by shoots with increasing Cr(VI) treatments (0-4 ppm). In the presence of excessive oxygen, chromium (III) oxidizes into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic and more soluble in water than are other forms. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by carriers of essential ions such as sulfate or iron. industries including metallurgical, electroplating, production of paints and The ever-increasing industrial activities over the decades have generated high toxic metal such as chromium (Cr) that hampers the crop productivity. regulated, 21 down-regulated, and 2 were newly induced. To understand the behavior of Burkholderia xenovorans in arsenic-contaminated environments regarding the expression and function of arsenic-resistance genes in this multi-replicon bacterium. poorly developed roots and necrotic lesions. Toxicity of chromium in plants is connected with the enhanced ROS formation and oxidative stress development resulting in the intensified protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. In plants, Cr(III, VI) toxicity symptoms include, ) compared the effect of soil amended with, ) inhibiting pollen germination and pollen tube growth, ). Under Cr(VI) stress, AsA content increased, 2–11) and are synthesized from glutathione (GSH) by, ). These methods are proposed for the management of toxic heavy metals from soil. The, most readily available form of N to plants is nitrate (NO, Nitrate reductase (NR) is a key enzyme involved in the, Cr(VI) stress concentration of protein nitrogen decrease, thereby suggesting its interference with N uptake and, assimilation. Over 95% of economically viable chromite ores are situated in the southern part of Africa. Source-to-, plant transfer coefficients of Cr tended to increase with. reported a decrease in mitotic index in growing root. It is also possible that Cr interfere, mechanism controlling the intracellular pH; this possibil-, ity is supported by the fact that Cr could be reduced in, the cells thereby utilizing the protons (, Induction and activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and of antioxidant catalase are some of the major metal, at lower heavy metal concentrations, activity of antioxidan, enzymes increased, whereas at higher concentrations, the, SOD activity did not increase further and catalase activity, decreased. BMC Plant Biol 8:87, ckel J, Srivastava A, Strasser RJ (2001) Multiple. : soil mycorrhizal infectivity) leading to a sustainable microbial complex with high efficiency against phosphorus mobilization and transferring phosphorus from the soil organic matter or from soil minerals to the host plant. non-structural carbohydrates (Nichols et al. Plant Cell, A (2012) Plants as models for chromium and nickel risk, ). Ahsan N, Lee D, Alam I, Kim PJ, Lee JJ, Ahn Y, Kwak S, Lee I, Bahk JD, Kang KY, Renaut J, Komatsu S, Lee B (2008), Comparative proteomic study of arsenic-induced differentially, expressed proteins in rice roots reveals glutathione plays a, central role during As stress. When applied alone, CrO3 caused P deficiency in plants. AM fungi enhance plant tolerance to heavy, , has been found to enhance accumulation and, ). The maximum amount of Cr is accumulated, ). It further describes detoxification mechanisms and the resultant biochemical and physiological changes in plants. In the fruits, Cr treatment had no effect on Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn contents. Cr toxicity in plants is observed at, multiple levels, from reduced yield, through effects on leaf, and root growth, to inhibition on enzymatic activities and. In August 1975 it was observed that underground drinking water in Tokyo near the chromium (VI))-containing spoil heaps contained more than 2000 times the permissible limit of chromium. Cr(III) has also been reported to inhibit root growth. Chromite mining activities are indispensable for production of goods and services. Moreover, fertilizers containing 0.43 % Cr(III), ). J Exp Bot 4:59–64, Huffman EW Jr, Allaway WH (1973) Chromium in plants: distribu-, tion in tissues, organelles and extracts, and availability of bean, leaf Cr to animals. synthetase genes were down-regulated under Cr(VI) stress. elongation or both in the root tips (Liu et al. At growth retarding concentrations. Chromium at 4ppm level was becoming lethal to Sorghum. In: Lepp NW (ed) Effect of heavy metal pollution on plants, vol 1. Further, increasing concentrations of Cr positively correlated with increased proline content, superoxide dismutase activity, and per-oxide content in leaves. interaction in Fe-deﬁcient and Fe-sufﬁcient bean plants. known proteins, whereas 51 % did not show any homology. Several studies have reported that Cr(III, VI), and induces lipid peroxidation in mitochondrial, roots, and there was no signiﬁcant increase at 120 h, ). Although there are various valence states of Cr(from, are the most stable and common in the terrestrial envi-, trace element for human and animal health (Shrivastava et, highly toxic for plants and animals at high concentration. and qualitative changes in protein expression in, upon Cr(VI) treatment. Environ Pollut Ser B, Nichols PB, Couch JD, Al-Hamdani SH (2000) Selected physiolog-. Sorghum cultivar SSG 59-3 was more tolerable to Cr toxicity than HJ 541. PPO, H2O2, and MDA). Water Air Soil Pollut 6:191–206, Sanita di Toppi L, Fossati F, Musetti R, Mikerezi I, Favali MA (2002), Effect of hexavalent chromium on maize, tomato, and cauli-, Sanita di Toppi L, Musetti R, Marabottini R (2004) Responses of, trations of hexavalent chromium. microbial activities of soil occur. (iii) Differential, defensive response: the high ROS production by Cr(VI), could set in motion a chain of signaling response at gene, expression level which in turn could increase active, scavenging. Hence, the presence of S in the growth, medium reduces the uptake of Cr in the plants because both. CR Biol 333:597–607, Tauchnitze J, Schnabel R (1983) Effects of plants on the solubility of, heavy metal ion compounds. Submerged species showed higher chromium accumulation than do floating and emergent ones. decreased root length in all the N treatments. vascular aquatic plants. Excess Cr decreased the water poten, transpiration rates and increased diffusive resistance and, relative water content in leaves of cauliflower (, was observed in epidermal and cortical cells of bush bean, Cr in beans were found to decrease tracheary vessel, diameter, thereby reducing longitudinal water movement, reduced root surface of Cr-stressed plants can lower the, capacity of plants to explore the soil surface for water. Environmental pollutants such as chromium compounds can cause damage to rhizobia, legumes, and their symbiosis. conversion of Cr(VI) in soil to Cr(III)] appears to have, Having revised the overall picture of Cr toxicity, plants, it is clear that the species of Cr are toxic at different, degrees at different stages of plant growth and develop-, medium dependent. For example, AM fungi protected tree, suggesting ameliorating potential of AM fungi. The diverse Cr-resistance mechanisms displayed by microorganisms, and probably by plants, include biosorption, diminished accumulation, precipitation, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and chromate efflux. detachment of the cell wall from the plasma membrane. However, it is taken up by other non-speciﬁc car-, riers along with the uptake of essential elements and water, media depends upon the pH, oxidative state of Cr and its, concentration, salinity, and the presence of dissolved salts, to form complexes with organic acids and mycorrhizal. 2010;Rout et al. This may serve as an indicator of chromium pollution. Topological analyses showed 4 transmembrane domains in these HMA3 homologs positioned similarly in terms of cytoplasmic and non-cytoplasmic regions along with ~22-28% -helices, ~22-28% extended strands, and ~50% random coils. The different Cr(VI) concentrations changed chlorophyll (chl) content differently. Total inhibition of germination of seeds was observed at 300 mg/1 concentrations. J Plant Physiol 166: Haas ARC, Brusca JN (1961) Effect of chromium on citrus and, avocado grown in nutrient solution. activities, increase rate of photosynthesis and supports in bioremediations, of Technology (TUM), Munich, Germany; 2001. changes in pH and/or inhibition of ion transport. Higher source size and increased, photosynthetic process was found to be the basis for, building up of organic substances and dry matter production, under heavy-metal stress in general and Cr in particular, the Cr accumulation and toxicity in relation to b, production, it was found that dry matter production was, severely affected by Cr(VI) concentrations above 2.5, caused a significant decrease in the dry biomass accumu-, cultivated at 0.5 mM Cr(VI) restricted dry biomass, that dry matter production was not markedly affected by 200, Cr(VI), but uptake of Cr into plant tissue was, positively correlated with their contents in the soil. ACS Symposium. These findings may be useful for scheming a mitigation strategy for chromium toxicity. Cr(III) and Cr(VI) phytoremediation, by phytostabilizing. In contrast, some of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd) are highly toxic to plants hampering photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and yield in plants. These findings may provide essential background to perform wet-lab experiments to understand the role of HMA3 in metal homeostasis. The toxic properties of Cr(VI), originate from the action of this form itself as an oxidizing, agent, as well as from the formation of free radicals during. While copper and chromium were also accumulated mainly in roots and were 3 mg kg −1 and 900 mg kg −1 , respectively, at 10 mg L −1 in external solution. electron transport chain in mitochondria isolated from root, inactivation was noticed in NADH: cytochrome, activities, and cytochrome oxidase was the most suscepti-, content in roots and shoots, and an increase in seeds of, NADPH-dependent superoxide production and the activity, of NADPH oxidase and decreased the activity of NADH-, membrane vesicles, thereby suggesting interference of Cr. Cr(III) has been observed to react directly with DNA, forming DNA adducts, thereby suggesting DNA damage, Although Cr(III, VI) has been reported to be toxic in plant, system, yet some studies have reported beneﬁcial effects at, very low concentration, largely of Cr(III), on plant growth, containing Cr(III) have improved growth. from the nutrient solution, which is far greater, Cr accumulators. The ameliorative effects were studied in terms of Cr uptake, grain yield, antioxidative defense system parameters (viz. In contrast, an active uptake of both Cr, ). Various important parameters were studied which should be studied while investigating chromium toxicity in agricultural crops. The tanning industry is one of the major users of chromium (III) salts. In the current scenario of the environment, chromium contamination is changing very fast and creating problems for the scientist in developing better yielding variety under chromium toxicity. J Biol Chem 263:4704–4711, Kim YJ, Kim JH, Lee CE, Mok YG, Choi JS, Shin HS, Hwanga S, (2006) Expression of yeast transcriptional activator MSN1, promotes accumulation of chromium and sulfur by enhancing, sulfate transporter level in plants. ACC catalyzed reactions (Poschenrieder et al. Cr(III) is less mobile, less toxic and is mainly, found bound to organic matter in soil and aquatic environ-, ground water due to the use of Cr in various anthropomor-, phic activities has become a serious source of concern to. Some soil microorganisms are known to be involved in the solubilization of insoluble phosphate by excreting organic acids, phenolic compounds, protons, and siderophores. protein turnover impairment (Vannini et al. The decrease in chlorophyll, could be due to the destabilization and degradation of the, proteins of the peripheral part. J, Moreira OC, Rios PF, Barrabin H (2005) Inhibition of plasma, Neiboer E, Richardson DHS (1980) The replacement of the nonde-, script term heavy metals by a biologically and chemically, signiﬁcant classiﬁcation of metal ions. A study on the uptake of trivalent and hexavalent chromium by, Moral R, Navarro Pedreno J, Gomez I, Mataix J. and effects on the growth of oat in flowing nutrient solution and in soil. Under Fe-deficient conditions, dicotyledonous plants enhanced root Fe(III) reductase, activity, thus increasing the capacity to reduce Fe(III) to, Fe(II), the form in which roots absorb Fe (, inhibiting reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) or by competing with. water and soil and provides new insights about Cr toxicity in plants. There was a significant, studied the effect of tannery effluent on leaf, found that Cr had a pronounced effect on leaf, reported that salinity and Cr(VI) interaction, studied the effect of Cr on quality and quantity of, ). Further, AtHMA3 is most potentially expressed during senescence, germinating seed, seedlings, young rosette, bolting, and young flower. It was found that the genotype, erant to Cr stress. sugar metabolism linked (including ATP synthesis related), protein 1-Cys peroxiredoxin/Rab is thiol speciﬁc and is, activated when coupled with sulfhydryl reducing system, protein is not clearly understood but it plays an important. 2003). Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. InBacopa monnieri andScirpus lacustris accumulations of 1600 and 739 μg g-1 dw Cr, respectively, have been reported when exposed to 5 mg L-1 Cr for 168 hours in solution culture. A blend of pictorial and tabular data are provided to enhance understanding of the relevant information being conveyed. The toxicity of metal differs with the type of metal elements. Interactions of chromium with microorganisms and plants. In the periodic table, it is situated in the d block of the elements. Studies have documented a decrease in total chlorophyll. Mohan D, Pittman CU (2006) Activated carbons and low cost, adsorbents for remediation of tri- and hexavalent chromium from, Mongkhonsin B, Nakbanpote W, Nakai I, Hokura A, Jearanaikoon N, (2011) Distribution and speciation of chromium accumulated in, Montes-Holguin MO, Peralta-Videa JR, Meitzner G, Martinez–, Martinez A, de la Rosa G, Castillo-Michel HA, Gardea-, Torresdey JL (2006) Biochemical and spectroscopic studies of, chromium(VI) stress. plant interaction. Bull Environ Contam, thesis. of ferric chelate reductase in alfalfa roots by cobalt, nickel, chromium, and copper. Heavy metal toxicities: levels of, nickel, cobalt and chromium in the soil and plants associated with visual, symptoms and variation in growth of an oat crop. Maximum inhibition in growth was evident at 50% effluent application followed by 40% and 30% respectively. Fe mobilisation and uptake. Chin J Appl Environ Biol 15:602–605, Zhou XQ, Li YH (2004) The physiological and ecological responses, Zhu YL, Zayed AM, Qian J-H, deSouza M, Terry N (1999). This book is different from other books on trace elements (also commonly referred to as heavy metals) in that each chapter focuses on a particular element, which in tum is discussed in terms of its importance in our economy, its natural occurrence, its fate and behavior in the soil-plant system, its requirement by and detriment to plants, its health limits in drinking water and food, and its origin in the environment. Paiva LB, de Oliveira JG, Azevedo RA, Ribeiro DR, da Silva MG. Palma JM, Sandalio LM, Corpas FJ, Romero-Puertas MC, MaCarthy I, del Rio LA (2002) Plant proteases, protein degradation and, oxidative stress: role of peroxisomes. At 226 μg/g Cr dry wt leaf tissue concentration, development of brown coloration in the hydathodes of juvenile leaves ofLimnanthemum cristatum is a characteristic chromiuminduced alteration. Mining is an activity that generates a large amount of waste, producing about 65 billion tons annually; fifty-one billion tons is waste rock, and 14 billion tons, already stored globally, are particles with less than 120 μm, which are named “mine tailings” which are deposited on land. Many reports approve the negative impact of Cr(VI) on plants. General aspects. Under Cr(VI) stress, DNA damage was. I. germination, root elongation and coleoptile growth in six pulses. Further, seasonal variations, in the carbohydrate metabolism and sucrose-related, enzymes under Cr stress were observed suggesting differ-, ent mechanisms of Cr(VI) tolerance and Cr(VI). GSSG content increased under Cr(III, VI) stress; however, glutathione pool dynamics varied with Cr species (Scoc-, increase in AsA content between 5 and 24 h of Cr(VI), treatment and increase in GSH content under Cr(III, VI), between GSH and Cr levels has also been observed in, In contrast, a marked decline was observed in GSH levels, glutathione content was observed in roots and shoots of 11-, decline in the amount of various cellular antioxidants such, reported that APX activity and AsA content are more, effective in mitigating Cr-induced toxicity than the GSH in, to 96 h of exposure but was found to decline at 144 h of, metal accumulation in both roots and leaves of, Further, metal ions are detoxiﬁed within plants by, phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothiones (MTs) (Cobbett, binding proteins that are involved in intracellular ﬁxation, it was suggested that heavy metal sequestering PCs are not, induced by Cr(VI), unlike other metals (Sanita di Toppi, PCs are induced in both roots and shoots of, concluded that PCs and antioxidant enzymes are involved, MTs, on the other hand, have been reported to be induced. Toxicityofchromiumforplants depends on its valence state with Cr6+being more toxic andmobilethanCr3+[,–].e hexavalentchromium is toxic for agricultural plants at concentrations of about.–.mgmL−1inthenutrientsolutionand–mgg−1 inthesoil.Underphysiologicalconditions,concentrationof chromiumionsinplantsislessthan gg−1[,]. Environ Sci, Ahmad M, Wahid A, Ahmad SS, Butt ZA, Tariq M (2011). In contrast, the toxicity of trivalent chromium is very low, attributed to poor membrane permeability and little biomagnification. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. human beings by entering through food chain (Vernay et al. grains and appearance of plastoglobuli (Appenroth et al. (VI) was found to be more toxic than Cr(III), Previous studies have also reported a reduction in. The cis-acting elements of HMA3 genes were projected to be involved with stress response, anaerobic induction, and light responsive regulation in plants. At higher concentration (4 ppm), Cr stress decreased the grain yield (45-50%) as compared with controls. Human activities are increasing heavy metal contamination in agricultural soil, water, and air which are reaching plants directly or indirectly which in-turn causing major loss of agricultural crops and deficiency of food. Data from Shanker and Pathmanabhan (2004). duced structural changes in bush bean plants. Fres Environ, thalli to environmentally relevant concen-. Environ Geochem Health 2001;23: Rauser WE. Alterations in the plants at molecular level under Cr, Not much is known about the molecular events underlying, Cr toxicity. transport, thereby suggesting that electron transport chain, is a common site of Cr(VI) binding in plants. Plant cell responses, to heavy metals: molecular and physiological aspects. Water lily, ) have been found to accumulate Cr to the levels of, showed the highest bioconcentration potential, (water-starwort) is another aquatic macrophyte that, ). This study evaluated the effect of Cr on two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties, Pusa 2085 and Pusa Green 112, in hydroponic and pot-grown conditions. Cr(VI) is considered the most, toxic form of Cr, which usually occurs associated with, oxyanions. Gene 402:68–80, Quian X (2004) Mutagenic effects of chromium trioxide on root tip, Raghuram N, Sopory SK (1995) Light regulation of nitrate reductase. trometry under Cr(VI) stress (Labra et al. In the pot experiments conducted over two consecutive years, growth, yield, yield attributes, grain protein, and Cr uptake and accumulation were measured at different Cr concentrations. Cr, in contrast to other toxic trace metals like cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum, has received little attention, from plant scientists.