The types of representation and the styles of computation in the brain appear to be very different from the symbolic expressions and logical inferences that are used in sentence-logic models of cognition. Rather general knowledge also counts in the same. The problem of producing words appears to be universal in aphasia, but word-finding problems also occur in normal individuals and in many types of cerebral dysfunction. The Organization of Semantic Memory. The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Guido Gainotti on Nov 23, 2015, The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the. The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of Semantic Dementia are due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. The aim of this chapter is to present the state of the art research in semantic organizational knowledge. a CiteSeer-like, Language is the most evolved and complex of cognitive functions. Neither patient showed impairment in any other area of language performance. The printed version of notes will be distributed at the symposium. Our first aim consisted in rating the influence that different sources of knowledge could have in the representation of animals, plant life and artifact categories, rather than in those of living and non-living beings, as many previous studies on this subject have made. Many cognitive psychological, computational, and neuropsychological approaches to the organisation of semantic memory have incorporated the idea that concepts are, at least partly, represented in terms of their fine-grained features. Main features of the semantic disorders observed in Alzheimer's disease are discussed also discussed in the chapter. Almost every individual with aphasia has some reduction in the repertoire of words available for speech and requires more time than normal to produce words in response to either pictures or questions. It allows for machine-actionable description of the structure of these knowledge organization systems (KOS) and provides an excellent In fact, these concepts rely heavily on Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology. These patients produce a rambling, noninformative output, containing many words but conveying comparatively little information. The semantic memory focuses much on the factual and conceptual knowledge about the world and the way it expressed in terms of words. Furthermore, results of the study showed: (a) that the visual modality was considered by our subjects as the main source of knowledge for all the categories taken into account; (b) that in biological categories the next more important source of information was represented by other perceptual modalities, whereas. Introduction: The first clinical and experimental studies dealing with hemispheric asymmetries in comprehension, experience, and expression of emotions had been conducted in patients with focal brain lesions or in normal subjects investigated with special experimental procedures. Some of the most important problems concerning the clinical presentation, the structure, and the mechanisms of the semantic disintegration, as well as the categorical organization of semantic memory, are raised and investigated first in aphasia. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). 1) The popular RDF model and syntax is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation in February 1999 (Heflin, 2001). The neuroanatomical substrate of this distinction also remains a subject of debate. At the very least, this would seem to indicate that the cortex does massive amounts of parallel computation. The chapter discusses semantic disorders in aphasia and dementia. to model scientific literature and their interlinked relationships, we develop a domain-specific ontology to analyze contents They had suggested the models of a different hemispheric specialization and of a general right hemisphere dominance for emotions. received increasing research interests in recent years. The results demonstrate that rated prototypicality is related to both the familiarity of the concept and its distance from the average of the exemplars within the same category (the category centroid). The connectionist computer uses a special representation, termed value unit encoding, that represents small subsets of parameters in a way that allows parallel access to many different parameter values. The popular view of this type of knowledge is a form of knowledge encoded in organizational practices, procedures and routines. information to improve the organization, analysis and evaluation of scientific digital libraries. Propose a knowledge flow-based semantic organization structure to organize the learning resource, which can support new types of knowledge services. The essence of this knowledge, either individual or collective, is often perceived as a dynamic array of experiences, values, contextual information and expert insights. In recent years several papers have shown that different verbal and non-verbal semantic categories can be selectively disrupted by brain damage and that consistent anatomical localizations correspond to each category-specific semantic disorder.This paper aims to suggest that the brain regions typically damaged in a given type of category-specific semantic disorder might be critically involved in processing the kind of information which mainly contributes to organizing that semantic category and to distinguishing among its members.This general hypothesis is discussed taking into account: (a) comprehension and production of object names (nouns) and of action names (verbs) in agrammatic and in anomic aphasic patients; (b) verbal and non-verbal identification of body parts; (c) verbal and non-verbal identification of living beings and of man made artefacts. We asked 20 normal volunteers to provide properties of 64 concrete items, drawn from living and nonliving categories, by completing simple sentence stems (e.g., an owl is __, has __, can__). The resulting knowledge base is a major step beyond WordNet: in quality by adding knowledge about individuals like persons, organizations, products, etc. In this paper, we present She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. When it is individual, knowledge shows an individual's ability to demonstrate judgment in a particular situation. Contributions, The contents and topologies of inter-document linkages, such as citations and references among scientific literature, have Tulving constructed a proposal to distinguish between episodic memoryand what he termed semantic memory. A widely accepted and interesting technical definition of an ontology that still stands in computer science is that “an ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization” (Gruber, 1993, p. 1). In one, the patient appears to have a problem saying the word while in the second he appears to have a problem knowing the word desired. OVERVIEW; METHODOLOGY; SIMPLE MODELS OF SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION; NETWORK MODELS OF SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION; FRAMES AND SCRIPTS AS SCHEMA; OVERVIEW We have already noted the impressive capacity of long term memory. Organizations have been successfully utilizing data lakes and data warehouses in order to unify enterprise data in a shared space. In contrast, collective knowledge initiatives in an organization consist of creating and sharing knowledge for improving business and increasing productivity. "State of the Art in Semantic Organizational Knowledge." The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain.pdf. Much of this is represented as semantic information or general knowledge. Semantic memory :cognitive models• A semantic network is a method of representing knowledge as a system of connections between concepts in memory• knowledge is organized based on meaning, such that semantically related concepts are interconnected. implicit semantics behind reference indices are mined and organized to improve accessibility of scientific papers. This set of predictions will be labelled 'the sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge'. He was mainly influenced by the ideas of Reiff and Scheers, who in 1959 made the distinction between two primary forms of memory. His speech was slow and dysarthric, consisting of short disconnected phrases with some omission of lexical verbs. Explicit knowledge is intuitive, based on experience, intractable and refers to knowledge known as “know-how”. Anatomical-clinical correlations for the varieties of anomia described are suggested and a neurologic framework for the word-finding process described. The features generated were classified as to type of knowledge (sensory, functional, or encyclopaedic), and also quantified with regard to both dominance (the number of participants specifying that property for that concept) and distinctiveness (the proportion of exemplars within a conceptual category of which that feature was considered characteristic). So basically, it supports the ability to interact in terms of language. A complete Enterprise 'Semantic' Knowledge Graph. SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL): It is a powerful query language and widely used Application Programmer Interface (API) for accessing linked data collections online. She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. and citation anchor context of scientific papers. According to this line of thought, modality-specific perceptual systems process sensory information up to a critical level (the structural description), that permits access to a unitary, abstract and amodal semantic system, where no trace of the previous sensory-motor mechanisms persists. In order More specifically, Linked Data is the set of recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and Resource Description Framework (RDF). It is also transmittable in formal language as clear facts, propositions and symbols. This dissociation between concrete nouns and motion verbs found for the AD patients is discussed in terms of differences in the nature of semantic representations involving multiple physical and functional attributes in the case of concrete nouns, but only motion attributes in the case of motion verbs. 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