Start by sealing your seed in a plastic bag with a soaked paper towel inside. Seeds are sown immediately after extraction without the necessity of prior drying. In low-lying rainy areas, it may be advisable to construct surface drainage systems to prevent that possibility from ever occurring, or to plant only on sloped land, as is done in many areas of Southeast Asia. This article has been viewed 49,950 times. The ground might not be sufficient for the new root. Plant Durian Seedling In the newly planted durian, the production of root and leaf will not be constant because of the different capacity of each tree, soil condition, soil drainage, and ventilation. WHERE TO GROW Durian is an evergreen tree with its canopy taking conical to semi-elliptical shape. Durian trees are surface feeders, and if any weeding is necessary (with a cover crop like perennial peanut, there shouldn’t be much), care should be taken to prevent damage to the roots. Grafted trees are said to be particularly susceptible due to cracks that often form in the tree structure due to inherent grafting weaknesses. This article was co-authored by Maggie Moran. The Dorean plant has a width of 80 cm, width of 80 cm and height of 70 cm or adjusted to the type and condition of the soil. To maximize flower and fruit production, after allowing a 3 to 4 week dry period, growers in Malaysia then begin applying irrigation. In Asia, areas with a dry season longer than 3 months are regarded as marginal for durian, unless adequately irrigated, in which case there is no problem. In conclusion, Durian trees have been known to grow in Miami, Florida, but they need to be grown in a humid moist condition such as a greenhouse. Durian Seeds The spacing between one plant and another is recommended between 10 x 10 meters or 12 x 12 meters. For an ultratropical, durian is surprisingly tolerant of relatively low mean temperatures. 1. In Southeast Asia, cut surfaces are routinely treated with a fungicide and bitumastic compound (use an organic equivalent). Growth of P. palmivora in Southeast Asia is also controlled by using cultivars known to be resistant. propagation of durian. Having the kinds of durian varieties they have, Thais don’t understand Malaysians’ (and others) obsession with tree-ripened fruit and enduring all the harvesting and marketing challenges and high prices that result. Planting Durian Seeds Outside . Favorable terrain for good durian cultivation ranges from flat to steep. Grafting techniquesused are inarching, cleft grafting, hypoc… Some higher-elevation microclimates as on the south slopes of gulches, may be suitable though the surrounding area is not. The Malaysians disapprove of the Thai practice of harvesting durians before ripe and letting them ripen off the tree — that’s unthinkable in Malaysia. After the union is complete, the new scion is severed from the mother tree at about the level of the bottom of the seedling roots. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. Durians, aka Stink Fruit, are one of five different tropical Fruit found in Animal Cross: New Leaf. Except for usually light damage by local fruit borers, beetles, and leaf cutters in some areas, the tree and fruit tend to be relatively free of insect pests. Heavy clay soils are not supportive of good durian tree growth and health, as they do not drain well. I’ve been fortunate to experience both incredibly luscious Thai durians (especially Monthong and especially those grown on the southern islands of Koh Samui and Koh Pha-Ngan, and in the durian-growing capital of Chanthaburi in eastern Thailand) — and some of the extremely richly-delicately-flavored connoisseur creme-de-la-creme Malaysian durians (especially on the island of Penang). -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Seedless Guava air layering propagation" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_3DOVTRIj8 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- In Chanthaburi province, Thailand, which leads the world in quantity of annual durian production, many durian plantations are on relatively flat land. Following planting, young durian trees should be provided with temporary shade and complete wind protection for the first year, as in a shadecloth nursery structure or equivalent. The Thai durian varieties have evidently been selected and bred over generations to support this customary harvesting-before-ripe. Plant your seeds outdoors if you get lots of rainfall and high temperatures. Durian trees can get very big and need space to grow. Durian seedlings that will serve as rootstocks are sown in beds and dug up when approximately 300 to 600 mm [1 to 2 feet tall]. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. These can also provide needed shade during the durian trees' early life, as happens in the rainforest. Durian fruits vary in size and shape depending on variety and completeness of pollination, but most often are oblong and have an average mass slightly larger than a (U.S.-style) football. Yield of up to 200 fruits is common after the 10th year of fruiting". This will ensure that your soil drains quickly enough for the durian tree to not drown or rot in standing water. Maxing out the health of durian trees of choice varieties with modern organic methods and soil amendments such as compost and rock dust is likely to produce bumper crops of humongous spiky fruits of unimaginable and staggering deliciousness! Assuming it is still viable, how do you grow it from seed. For transport or mailing, the seeds are best immediately placed in moist coconut fiber. ), either large safety nets are arranged under the trees to catch the falling spiky fruits; or workers climb the trees early in the season to attach long strings or ropes to each developing fruit, which are looped over branches above and then down to ground level like a pulley, so when the fruits are dropped by the tree they are caught and can be safely and easily lowered. However, T.S. In Thailand, the common vigorous Chanee variety is said to serve very well as a rootstock. Check the internet to find out your area's rainfall and average temperatures. Micro-sprinkler or drip irrigation can be used. Soak the jackfruit seeds in water for 24 hours. In orchards, durian trees are commonly spaced 6-16 m [20 to 50 feet] apart, aiming for about 156 trees/hectare [64 trees/acre] to 40 trees/hectare [16 trees/acre]. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. At this point, I … "—Bao Sheng Durian Farmwebsite, Malaysia. The effective growth method for Durian cultivation is the Bud Grafting. Only plant your durian outside if you receive somewhere between 60–150 in (150–380 cm) of rain per year, and if the temperature stays above 45 °F (7 °C). Durian trees are otherwise benefited from manure and mulch, like many other trees). It’s evident that Thais and Malaysians have a good-natured rivalry around their approaches to durians. In Malaya, seedlings will bloom in 7 years; grafted trees in 4 years or earlier. As the Permaculture approach recommends, other useful plants can be grown among durian trees at ground level and lower levels. Leave it somewhere that gets 4-6 hours of direct sunlight a day. Malaysian varieties are generally smaller than Thai durians (rarely as large as a soccer ball), many varieties have much thinner spikes, and usually the fruit flesh around the seeds is not as thick as is common in Thai varieties. This article was co-authored by Maggie Moran. Sometimes four to five-year old trees can start to flower. To cut durians early and not allow them to ripen on the tree and drop naturally occurs to most Malaysians as an insensitive ruination of full-flavored durian quality. These are the upper limits at which it’s possible to grow durians at all, though, not the optimum; on Penang island in Malaysia, few productive durian farms are above 300 m [700 feet]. Continue reading this article to learn How to Grow Jackfruit!. Page, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, 1984), growers in Thailand employ an unusual type of bottle graft with which many or most of their trees are grown. "—Julia Morton, Fruits of Warm Climates). However, tropical legume cover crops between trees, such as perennial peanut, are recommended. b. We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. Thank you very much.". Durian trees grow best in a rich, deep, well-drained sandy clay or clay loam (deep alluvial or loamy soil), high in organic matter, pH range of 6 - 7. Ever feel like something is just OFF with your stomach? Native to tropical Asia, the Jackfruit is a giant melon size oblong fruit that is grown in the tropical parts of South-East Asia. In Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines wedge (cleft), whip, approach, Forkert, and bud grafting of durian trees are all common. Of the weight of a typical whole durian, only about 15% to 25% is fruit pulp and about 20% is seeds, making it one of the most expensive fruits in the world in terms of its ratio of whole fruit to the part actually edible. For trees that will remain interplanted among the durians indefinitely, in Malaysia, rambutan is a favored choice, as is nutmeg and chile pepper plants; but not mangos, mangosteen, citrus, starfruit, jackfruit, champedak, nor many others that can attract pest insects. Consider planting the tree in the shadow of other trees. For more tips from our Gardening co-author, including how to plant your durian seed outside, read on! In these equatorial areas, durian trees do not start flowering in response to any seasonal changes in day length or temperature, but rather are stimulated to flower by periods of dry weather. Healthy durian seeds sprout as quickly and vigorously as bean seeds, usually within a few days but possibly as long as a week. It’s advisable to go further than this, and add rock dust (which enhances a plant’s health and enriches the flavor of the plant’s resulting food harvest) as well as other available organic amendments, and use standard organic tree planting techniques. In most areas of Asia where durians are grown, mean annual rainfall is greater than 2000 mm [75 inches]. Many things can cause the failure of planting a durian in the media like that. (T.S. The secret is in the soil. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. Durian, (Durio zibethinus), tree of the hibiscus, or mallow, family and its large edible fruit.The durian is cultivated in Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, and southern Thailand and is seldom exported. Chang of Bao Sheng Durian Farm asserts that durians lose 20% to 25% of their full potential for aroma and flavor by being harvested early...and I can understand from eating Malaysian durians what he means.) Place the seeds in a small container with lukewarm water and let them soak for at least a full day. Does it like heat to germinate? Plant propagation can be by seed, but for uniformity, smaller stature, and early maturity, it is better to use clones produced by asexual methods such as graftingand budding. In Thailand it is commonly recommended that growers avoid using organic animal manure, as the most troublesome disease of durian trees there, the fungal Phythophera palmivora, is encouraged by the moist fertile conditions at ground level around the trunk created by manure and mulch. A Durian is a rare fruit food item.It can be cooked on a fire into an Extra Smelly Durian, and also used as an ingredient in Crock Pot recipes. "Rich soil conditions will make the tree grow well and fast. There is no doubt, though, that drier zones can produce good crops with appropriate irrigation. In areas near the equator where there are no defined wet and dry seasons, as in parts of Malaysia and Sumatra, individual trees commonly bear fruit twice a year, with the peaks in June and December. Most commercial durian cultivation in  Southeast Asia is located within 15 degrees latitude of the equator, and some literature has suggested that 18 degrees north or south is the limit at which durians can thrive. (Animal manures are favored in most places for this purpose, but not in Thailand, where chemical fertilizers are widely used in commercial production). As grafted trees may start bearing at age 4-6, planting the trees more closely in the orchard’s first decade is a way to increase fruit production from a given piece of land. Provide shade to newly planted durian seedlings for a period of two weeks to a few months depending on weather condition to enable the plant to recover from transplanting shock and to shade it from strong sunlight. T.S. A large number of grafting methods are commonly employed. Durian growers wait until the trees naturally drop their ripe fruit, and collect the fruit several times a day from under the trees. Various cultivars may have their own unique responses to dry weather and irrigation; for exam-ple, the common Malaysian cultivar D24 is sensitive even to short dry spells; the common Thai variety Chanee tends to drop flowers if watered as much as other varieties. To prevent damage from hitting the ground or rocks (or people! Their fruit may be better or worse than the parent tree, and it may be 10 to even 20 years before first fruit! How long does it take for a durian tree to grow? Pruning a. Pruning improves air circulation which results in decreased relative humidity, thus, reducing the incidence of pests and diseases. On Penang, at Bao Sheng farm, the best just-dropped varieties of durians sold in the 1999 season for about the equivalent of US$3.50 a pound, which meant that a typical 4-pound durian cost about US$15 for one fruit. Durian trees are large, growing to 25–50 metres (80–165 feet) in height depending on the species. The roots are packed with moist coconut husk fiber and sealed in a plastic bag. When I visited both countries in June 1999 at the peak of durian season, the highest-quality durians in Thailand were selling in the marketplaces for the equivalent in U.S. money of about 50 cents a pound; over the border in Malaysia highest-quality durians were selling for the equivalent of US$3.50 a pound at the farm, more in the marketplaces. Grafted cultivars generally start bearing at 4 to 6 years after planting in the ground; seedlings usually take from 7 to 10 years but have been known to wait as long as 13 to 21 years—powerful incentives to use vegetative propagation. Part 2 ("It is reported that, in some countries, seedling durian trees have borne fruit at 5 years of age. For more tips from our Gardening co-author, including how to plant your durian seed outside, read on! The organism gains access to the interior tissues of the tree suitable for its growth through natural or pruning wounds, thus hygienic pruning and using (natural) fungicides are very important to guard against infestation. Nice experience. Known for its size, smell, and spiky appearance, durian fruit is typically grown in tropical areas around Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Keep this in mind when you choose a location for your durian.”. Shoot growth is continuous rather than seasonal. The times a few months before flowering, during fruit development, and after harvesting are favored for fertilizing durian trees throughout Southeast Asia. The leaves are evergreen, elliptic to oblong and 10–18 centimetres (4–7 inches) long.The flowers are produced in three to thirty clusters together on large branches and directly on the trunk with each flower having a calyx and five (rarely four or six) petals. ; Durian matures between 85 and 150 days after pollination. Be prepared for your durian to grow tall. There is a tendency with some trees to bear only every other year, even in areas where twice-a-year fruiting is possible. Many people (including me) savor Thai varieties of durians eaten when mid-ripe, somewhat before totally ripe; totally ripe is usually past their peak of deliciousness. It's worth remembering that durian is a native of equatorial rainforests, eventually growing to the high canopy, and is at home amongst a mix of other plants and trees. Don’t let your durian tree sit in standing water for any amount of time, as this can kill the tree quickly. Symptoms are canker development on the trunk at or just above ground level, and an oozing of brownish-red gum at the collar of the tree, up the trunk and down to the roots, which can result in complete girdling and subsequent death of the tree. However, a Thai variety of durian allowed to ripen and drop from the tree is usually already past its prime. Did you know you can read expert answers for this article? The Brunei Department of Ag also suggests another alternative of interplanting with fast growing nitrogen-fixing-trees (there are a great many possibilities, including various species of Gliricidia, Sesbania, Leucaena, Albizia, Acacia, and others) which will provide shade, nutritious mulch, and soil improvement. Farther from the equator, on the edges of the tropics (as in Hawai`i) where weather patterns start to somewhat resemble the four seasons of the temperate regions, this dry period is not necessarily required, and flowering is influenced more by day length and seasonal temperature. "Helpful article. On the other end of the spectrum, durian trees in India sometimes successfully tolerate high temperatures up to 46º C. [114º F.]. Traditional organic fertilizers are used with good results in Malaysia and elsewhere. Proper pruning of the durian tree is said to be important to obtain a tree form that encourages early flowering and good yields. The pruning system commonly used in Southeast Asia includes: formative pruning resulting in a main leader; after about age 2 or 3 the interior is thinned out, removing all thin or dead branches and water shoots, encouraging early branching to encourage early bearing, topping to maintain a manageable tree height as the tree grows older, general maintenance pruning contributing to a healthy and productive tree, removing dead, broken or diseased branches and water shoots, and allowing free circulation of air and plenty of sunlight throughout the canopy. Historically, though, the better production sites have developed in areas with annual mean rainfall totals of 3000 mm [125 inches] or more, well distributed throughout the year. These places are also all relatively close to the equator, which suggests that the altitude limit for successful durian growing in areas further away from the equator like Hawai‘i may be considerably less, perhaps 300 m [1000 feet] at the most, with best growth and production at the lower elevations. Part of the fruit stem (botanically speaking, the peduncle) is always left attached when the durian is cut from the tree, rather than breaking off the fruit from the stem. Its fruits are used in cooking as well as eaten raw and fresh. Durian flowers open at noon and close at midnight (anthesis), so that bats play an important role in this plant pollination. They do not do well very close to the ocean, having almost no tolerance for salinity in the soil. In equatorial regions, it needs at least three to four weeks of dry weather without rain to produce flowers to fill all branches. Soak the seeds to speed up the germination process and to help your seedlings to grow faster. Successful durian cultivation is very unlikely outside the tropics. "Initial yield may be 10 to 40 fruits for the first year of fruiting to about 100 fruits for the sixth year. To grow durian, you’ll have to water the tree often and keep the temperature high. Botanical Name: Artocarpus heterophyllus USDA Zones: 9-11 Check out our article on growing sugar apple here. For convenience they can be called the Thai approach, which is prevalent mostly only in Thailand, and the Malaysian approach, which is prevalent almost everywhere else in Southeast Asia but has been particularly developed and refined in Malaysia. Durian has a By the time the durians are fruiting, the banana or papaya plants should be removed, however, as their fruits will draw unwanted pest insects to the area. Support wikiHow by The structure of the young trees and their leaves is such that strong winds can twist the leaves right off, a setback from which they are unlikely to ever fully recover. Durians in Thailand have been made a widespread commodity that the majority of average people appear to be able to afford; in Malaysia it appears that durians are in financial reach of primarily only wealthier consumers (not a criticism, just an observation of the way things are). Wedge grafting and bud grafting are probably the most common techniques. Durian growers in Thailand are often advised to keep the area under the tree and drip line area free of weeds, manure, and mulch, primarily so as to not create a microclimate suitable for the thriving of Phythophora palmivora disease. To plant the tree too close together, it snatches nutrients and water from each other. Like papayas, bananas, and avocados, durians do ripen well off the tree, if not cut too soon. The Thais possess durian varieties which in their own way are of magnificent quality when cut, ripened off the tree (like bananas), and eaten at just the right stage before totally ripe. Most durian growers regard any variety of durian as suitable for a rootstock as long as it is healthy and vigorous. In India, a relative of the durian, Cullenia excelsa (native to Sri Lanka) is favored as a good vigorous rootstock which is said to also hasten the time of first fruiting. Durian trees need abundant rainfall, or equivalent irrigation. When you start trying to graft them, then you take a huge chance of losing the few plants you have. Like mango trees, heavy rains and wind during flowering can knock off many of the blossoms, decreasing or even eliminating fruit production that season. They are globes up to 12 inches in diameter covered by a spiny husk. The organism is a primary parasite of durian roots. More cultivation information: Durian chapter (19 pages) from The Production of Economic Fruits in South-East Asia by Othman Yaacob and Suranant Subhadrabandhu (Oxford University Press, New York, 1995). That’s at the farm, though; just-dropped durians are rushed from farms to the cities of Malaysia where the same durian may readily sell for over twice the farm price. In simple terms, the durian has a definite main, central vertical trunk and the lateral branches grow at an oblique or horizontal angle from it. Regarding altitude and climate, coconuts may be a fairly good indicator as to the likelihood of success with growing durians: if coconut palms can grow and bear well in your micro-climate… except for seaside areas [durians are not salt-tolerant], durians may be possible too. Durian Seeds can be gained by feeding a Durian to Birds in a Birdcage, which can produce 1–2 Durian Seeds as well as a 50% chance to get normal Seeds. As a durian-lover from the outside, I respect, understand, and enjoy both the Thai and Malaysian approaches and the resulting fruit. Lifting the bole of durian tree is to prevent the root rot and simplify the flowering when the tree is 5-year-old. Once durian started to grow on me, I had to try and grow it. 3 x 3 x 3 feet, and should be filled with topsoil mixed with 3 or 4 pots of well-decomposed cow manure or compost. As with any plant or tree, the best way to minimize damage of durian trees or fruit by pests or disease is to keep the soil and tree as maximumly healthy as possible using modern organic methods. which reached already 100 cm. Seedlings make more vigorous growth when potted into media that is light and sandy rather than high in clay content. (The Brunei Department of Agriculture recommends .5 m deep by 1 meter in diameter.) Durian has diffuse growth rather than rhythmic growth. I got this durian seed from a durian I ate. And in durian-crazed Singapore, when swiftly exported fresh-dropped Malaysian durians of the highest quality varieties are available there, durian connoisseurs snap them up for the equivalent of US$75 per fruit! Good durian plant actually directly in the media for planting directly on the ground. In tropical areas with distinct wet and dry seasons, for example, India and eastern Java, flowering begins near the end of the dry season. Eventually the durians will shade out the bananas or papayas, which can be trimmed and used as mulch and will also of course provide fruit harvest of their own. Chang of Bao Sheng Durian Farm recommends placing topdressed fertilizer just beyond the edge of the root zone so that the trees’ roots will chase after it and expand their reach in the process. Don’t bury the seed, just gently push it into the soil so it’s still visible. Click here to view the Brunei Department of Agriculture's durian-grafting instruction pages. In Sri Lanka, the upper elevation limit for growing durians is said to be 600 m [2000 feet]; in the Philippines, 700 m [2300 feet], in Malaysia, 800 m [2600 feet]. Durian farmers need to learn the right planting techniques and plant different varieties in order to achieve the best quality. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 49,950 times. In the long term, this is unfortunate for the trees and the grower, as the trees compete for canopy sunlight in the increasingly cramped situation and eventually grow very tall and thin with less fruitbearing capacity. Therefore, vegetative propagation, which is not difficult, is universally preferred and recommended for reproducing cultivars with known desirable traits. The times most critical for water for the durian tree are during flowering and fruiting. The root system of a durian tree is very sensitive to standing water, and good drainage is essential, which is well taken care of by such sloping situations. This article has been viewed 49,950 times. However, like many other fruit trees, it is a good idea to at least quarterly topdress the soil under the tree with a mix of organic fertilizers (preferably particularly rich in nitrogen and potassium) during the first five years. When blossoms are forming, water is sometimes deliberately withheld to enhance flowering. Root area is the ground with enough area for the root to absorb nutrients, fertilizers and water. If you want to try your hand at growing these types of plants, keep it simple and you will probably do just fine. of complete fertilizer (14-14-14) or based on soil analysis and cover with thin layer of soil. Not do well very close to the ocean, having almost no for. Is not difficult, is universally preferred and recommended for reproducing cultivars with known desirable traits tree often keep! Bag with a soaked paper towel inside x 12 meters trees ' early life, happens! Coconut husk fiber and sealed in a warm climate with plenty of rainfall, or you! To an out-of-season round of flowering and fruiting are not supportive of good durian plant actually in... Pot and put that on a heat mat already past its prime how do you grow it from.! 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