The oldest human remains found in Nigeria have been dated to 9000 B.C., though the region was likely inhabited before then. [29] At the same time, British colonial authorities maintained and promoted traditional Nigerian culture that strengthened colonial administration. Dolapo Ajakaiye. The difference between ethnicity and nationality can be drawn clearly on the following grounds: Ethnicity denotes the person’s ethnic identity, on the basis of descent attributes and cultural inheritance. The Nigerian federation is a marriage of over 400 ethnic nationalities whose consents were not sought in its formation. [26] 50.6% of Nigerians are Muslims and about 47.9% are Christians. Nigeria is composed of various ethnic groups and cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship -based civic nationality. Nigerians come from multiple ethnic and religious backgrounds as the founding of Nigeria was the result of a colonial creation by the British Empire. Ethnicity has been a ground for discrimination against populations in different parts of the world, and it is known as racism or communalism for convenience or justification purposes. There is no black , colored, or whit race. Igbo society, unlike the Hausa and Yoruba, is non-hierarchical and not reliant on a centralized society. [31] Ethnic-motivated and religious-motivated violence by extremists has increased these tensions as well. Because of their great wish to become more than a citizenship-al country, they have managed to convince themselves and others that they are a nation, and thus introduces a confusion into vocabulary. Nigeria is found in West Africa and borders Benin, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger. [29] Prior to colonization in the twentieth century, Nigeria's tribes usually possessed the land as a community, such that land could not be bought or sold. Although the Kanuri culture is rich with tradition, Boko Haram are using their lands as a base for operations, and innocent Kanuri people have been subjected to violence and Sharia law. Fulani and Hausa together make up approximately 29% of the population of Nigeria. Some Tiv people identify as Christians, even less as Muslim. [25], Ethnic, religious, and regional disputes and tensions have commonly divided Nigerians on political issues. In reality, they’re not. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon. 2Department of Social Studies, College of Education, P.M.B 1021, Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria. Hausa are known for raising cattle and other stock, growing crops and trading. Nationality (noun) is the relationship between a person and the political state to which he belongs or is affiliated.. [24] A male elder commonly serves as a village chief. Indeed, Nigerian-Americans have more post-graduate degrees than any other racial or ethnic groups. It is primarily an ethnicity and nationality. This is largely due to intermarriage and Fulani living among the Hausa population. Kanuri people are predominately Sunni Muslims. Heritage. Most ethnic groups in Nigeria have formed illegal vigilante or militia groups, protecting their interests from other groups within the country. The lands in which the Ijaw inhabit are extremely oil-rich. There is no united-station-al nationality or ethnicity, as there is no New-York-ian, Minesott-ian or Florid-ian. Ethnicity vs Nationality. Explore the eight largest ethnic groups in Nigeria below: Where nationality means one’s country of origin, ethnicity refers to racial ancestry. They have long been opposed to Sharia law in Nigeria, with most Igbo identifying as Christian. Race is defined as a group of people distinguished by shared physical characteristics—aka as skin color, like being Black or white. [24], Hausa Fulani Nigerian women, wearing traditional clothing, Yoruba Nigerian men of Kwara origin, wearing traditional clothing and playing drums, Igbo Nigerian men, wearing the modern Isiagu with traditional Igbo men's hat, An Eyo Iga Olowe Salaye masquerade jumping, Map of west Africa, showing Nigeria in dark green, A view of lokoja on top of hill Mount Patti. Yoruba are usually identified as Christian or Muslim, although a lot of Yoruba still uphold traditional aspects of their ancestors' religious practices and beliefs. Since this war, Igbo have been reintegrated into Nigerian society; a lot Igbo still feel marginalized by the status quo in Nigeria. [29] Such as British colonial authorities' denouncements and attacks upon polygamy, trial by ordeal, and certain types of sacrifices. Modern migrations have resulted in a large presence of people of Nigerian descent elsewhere in Africa, the U.S., Canada, the U.K., and in the Netherlands. Nigeria is a multi-lingual society having 374 ethnic nationalities that speak 348 languages. [28] The Kanem-Bornu Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate were major historical Islamic states in northern Nigeria. (UKC-Commonwealth Nation) Those born before or on the date of independence, October 1, 1960, whose parents or grandparents were born in Nigeria and who were legally residing in Nigeria at the time, are considered citizens of Nigeria. Nigerians or the Nigerian people, are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria. Your nationality is the part of the culture you identify with the most. [28], Nigerian culture was profoundly affected by the British colonial rule. Citizenship, Ethnic Rights and Identity Question in Nigeria: Conceptual Issues- Generally citizenship denotes the status of an individual as a full and responsible member of a political community. 1. Nationality vs. Nigeria News - WHO will rescue Nigeria from the clutch of ethnic venom that is gradually but steadily being secreted by ethnic nationalists through their a Race vs Ethnicity vs Nationality: A Handy Table. [30] These villages compose members of the ethnicity-related through ancestry as well as strangers who have been assimilated into the ethnicity. Nationality. Kindly Share This Story. [30], In Nigeria's large cities, there is substantial intermingling of Nigerians with foreigners, especially Europeans, Lebanese, and Indians. Ibibio people in the region also inquired (with the British Crown) to become their own sovereign nation within Nigeria (pre-independence). In 1967, Igbo fought with the Nigerian government to achieve independence. Nigeria is found in West Africa and borders Benin, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger. Nigeria is a federal constitutional republic comprising of 36states and its federal capital, Abuja. Ethnicity in Nigeria (2020) Hausa (27.4%) Yoruba (21%) 0 2. But I don't think you should have to choose, there's nothing wrong with being a Ghanaian-Nigerian or a Nigerian-Ghanaian. Because ethnicity, race, and nationality are closely related and thus lumped together on the Census, they are easily confused, frequently conflated, and incorrectly understood as being interchangeable. Nigeria has been referred to as "The Giant of Africa," due to the large population and distinct economic achievements in comparison to countries that surround this land. The Ibibio, mostly found in southeastern Nigeria, have a rich oral history passed down through generations. Ethnicity and the Nigerian State. The Yoruba culture has historically relied on large populations in a centralized location and an Oba (King). The decision is up to the individual. These people have lived in this part of Nigeria for several hundred years. This is bittersweet for the Ijaw people, as oil exploration has subjected their land to ecological vulnerability. Nigerians or the Nigerian people, are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria. The ethnic group known as Tiv are well known for their agricultural produce and the trading of this produce. The presence of more than one adjective in a noun is common in Central Asian states where one adjective relates to the nation while the other relate to the dominant ethnic group. This is against the background that the Niger Delta crisis, despite being widely portrayed as turning on an ethnic pivot, reveals attributes that should compel a rethink of its assumed social character. The Ijaw have historically had tensions with the rest of the Nigerian population. Many people of African descent in the Americas, and particularly in the Caribbean, have some Nigerian ethnicity. Information on whether a child born in Nigeria to a Rwandan mother and a Nigerian father automatically becomes a Nigerian citizen could not be found among the sources consulted by the DIRB. As you read this article, you can refer back to this table to help keep things straight. p. 216. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFStatistics_Canada2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMcFadyen2008 (, "EXCLUSIVE: As Benin Republic clocks 53: Over 6m Nigerians live in former Dahomey, 200 in jails but Amb Obisakin says 'Nigeria is a power here, there's no doubt about it, "Immigrant and Emigrant Populations by Country of Origin and Destination", "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland", "Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection", https://www.migrationpolicy.org/programs/data-hub/charts/immigrant-and-emigrant-populations-country-origin-and-destination, "Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre - Tabeller - SSB", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nigerians&oldid=993722814, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 03:33. Explore the eight largest ethnic groups in Nigeria below: The Hausa are the biggest ethnic group in Nigeria. There is evidence of ironworking from around 600 B.C. Nigeria has no less than 250 ethnic groups. However, depending on context, others point to a "Germanic" race meaning Europeans speaking Germanic speech to belong to a so-called "subracial" group. [26] Even during periods of military rule, such military governments were pressured to maintain democratic stances by the Nigerian people. [29] The British replaced unpaid household labour with wage labour. These groups include Ebira, Edo, Gwari, Jukun, and Igala, to name a few. Ethnicity and citizenship crisis in Nigeria: Interrogating inter ethnic relations in Sardauna Local Government Area, Taraba State Lenshie, Nsemba Edward1* and Johnson Abel2 1Department of Political Science and International Relations, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria. Information on whether or not there have been amendments since 1990 could not be found among the sources … [31] In particular, cultural and political divisions between the Muslim north and the Christian south has politicized religion and caused significant political disputes in Nigeria. Individuals who designate themselves as Yoruba make up approximately 21% of the population of Nigeria, making them the second biggest ethnic group in the country. [26], However, despite instances of extremism, most Nigerians continue to peacefully coexist, and a common Nigerian identity has been fostered amongst the more-educated and affluent Nigerians as well as with the many Nigerians who leave small homogeneous ethnic communities to seek economic opportunities in the cities where the population is ethnically mixed. Global America? Race, what is race but a made up term created by who knows who to different classes of people based on the pigment of their skin. Fulani adopted Islam early, and a large section of the Fulani people are recognized as excellent Islamic clerics. Tayo Oke November 17, 2020. Kogi state, In Nigeria, seventy percent of Nigerians live in villages of two types: the first type used by the Igbo and Tiv involves a collection of dispersed compounds, the second type used amongst the Hausa fulani, Yoruba, and Kanuri involves nucleii of compounds. Use the nationality adjective ending in -ese or -ish with a plural verb, to refer to all people of that nationality. However, for general information on Nigerian citizenship, please refer to the attachments. Goodluck Jonathon, the Prime Minister of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015 identifies as an Ijaw, and his election to the highest office in Nigeria was a proud moment for Ijaw people. [27] Considering the ever increase in the population of the country, it is now believed that the two major religions (Christianity and Islam) will soon be contending for figure supremacy in years to come. While we're definitely going to talk a lot about race vs ethnicity vs nationality, we wanted to give you a handy table with definitions and examples of each term right off the bat. It is not to be confused with, For a specific analysis of the population of Nigeria, see. [30] Since the time prior to colonization to the present it has been common practice of Nigeria's tribes to adopt strangers into the tribes. [29] The British spread Christianity throughout southern Nigeria and Christian missionaries assisted British authorities in establishing a Western-style education system in Nigeria that resulted in the teaching of the English language in Nigeria and its subsequent adoption as Nigeria's main language. In addition, countries have different names used to refer to people from different parts of the country. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Largest Ethnic Groups And Nationalities In The United States, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US. BY BIRTH: Birth within the territory of Nigeria does not automatically confer citizenship. [26] Although there are cultural divisions amongst Nigerians, the English language is commonly used as their primary language. Drawing on primary ethnographic data, and on relevant secondary sources, the article highlights methodological and epistemic flaws in the argument that petro… p. 77. Being the largest ethnic group in Nigeria, Hausa have always been some of the main players in Nigerian politics since Nigeria was granted independence from Britain in 1960. Here are a few examples that will demonstrate the difference between the two. Origin of Ethnicity in Nigeria The Nigerian past is made up of many pasts, not one – the past histories of the various peoples and civilizations which constitute present day Nigeria. [23] Nigerians derive from over 250 ethnic groups and languages. 9 years ago. To make it clearer, a person born in India and living in the US, will only have an Indian nationality, and not an American nationality. If a person from an Italian family was born in Greece, then that person would have an Italian ethnicity, and not a Greek ethnicity. This fundamental flaw is further deepened by the fact that these ethnic groups have very striking differences ranging from language, population, level of education and geographical terrain which was not factored into the crafting of the Nigerian State. Nationality is the status of belonging to a particular nation by origin, birth, or natur… Lv 7. This group seeks to express many of the Kanuri grievances towards the Nigerian government. The earliest known Iron Age civilization in Nigeria is the Nok, who lived in northern and central Nigeria … Ethnicity - - Difference Between Nationality and Ethnicity . [24] Colonization brought the notion of individuals owning land and commercialization of land began. Speaking about Lucian Perez’s nationality, he is from the United States, and thus, he is an American citizen. With estimates of their population reaching 67 million, Hausa make up approximately 25% of the Nigerian population. Nigeria is a fascinating country; in the 36 states and Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria, there are over 500 ethnic groups and over 500 languages spoken! The Tiv people all trace their ancestry back to an ancient individual also named Tiv, who had two sons. Today, Nigeria is about 50% Muslim and 40% Christian, with about 10% embracing traditional or indigenous beliefs. The remaining ethnic groups in Nigeria make up 12% of the Nigerian population. Ulrich Beck, Natan Sznaider, Rainer Winter. The Ijaw live in the Niger River Delta area of Nigeria and constitute around 10% of the population of the country. Mismanagement of these oil revenues has kept a substantial amount of the wealth from returning to the Ijaw community. If you're more comfortable with Ghana's culture then you identify with Ghana, and the same with Nigeria. This is one of the only sources of income for the group. by pslm23 ( f ): 8:38pm On Sep 22 , 2010 justwise: The Hausa culture is homogenized, meaning, throughout Nigeria, the Hausa culture is extremely similar. ... Nigerian etc. Boko Haram, an Islamist insurgent group in the North of Nigeria, are mostly of Kanuri descent. [26] Nigeria's political figures commonly know multiple indigenous languages outside their own indigenous language. Ethnicity (noun) is the identification of a person with a particular racial, cultural, or religious group.. They are listed below. Trish says: 27 May 2013 at 10:40 CEST. (based on British Home Office report). Ibibio has an amazing artistic culture, most known for creating intricate wooden masks and carvings. Reply. [24] Though there are multiple ethnic groups in Nigeria, economic factors result in significant mobility of Nigerians of multiple ethnic and religious backgrounds to reside in territories in Nigeria that are outside their ethnic or religious background, resulting in the mixing of the various ethnic and religious groups, especially in Nigeria's cities. Searching Greener Pastures. Mark D. DeLancey, Rebecca Neh Mbuh. [28] Northern Nigeria has been culturally influenced by Islamic influence including several major historic Islamic states in the region. Nigeria is a very ethnically diverse state with over 250 ethnic groups and over 500 languages. For Example; a person from Uzbekistan is Uzbekistani and is ethnically a Uzbek. The largest of the major ethnic groups, Hausa and Fulani have been politically dominant since Nigeria’s independence from Britain in 1960. [26], Media related to People of Nigeria at Wikimedia Commons, This article is about the people of Nigeria. Culture. This ethnic group numbers approximately 4.5 million which is equivalent to 3.5% of the population of Nigeria. By Justin Findlay on July 18 2019 in Society. [23] Nigeria is composed of various ethnic groups and cultures and the term Nigerian refers to a citizenship-based civic nationality. No matter what the nationality of a group of people may be, it is their ethnic affiliations that become important. This article assesses the viability of ethnicity as an explanation for the worsening orgy of conflict and militarisation in Nigeria’s oil producing region. Identity. Nigeria: ‘Tribalism’ and the nationality question. [25] Igbo, Hausa Fulani and Ibibio people have commonly migrated to Lagos and many southerners migrate to the north to trade or work while a number of northerner seasonal workers and small-scale entrepreneurs go to the south. Forming nationality adjectives and nouns from country names is not always simple in English. 10 It is a part of the Nigerian culture for children to show respect to their parents and the elderly ones in society, but the way and manner this respect is demonstrated among Nigerians differ from one tribe to the other. On the other hand, nationality is the person’s membership in the nation, which reveals the individual’s relationship with the nation. Lucian Perez, a child actor is of Chinese ethnicity from his mother’s side while from his father’s side, he is European, Mexican, and Native American. Hausa are also recognized for practicing Islam as their main religion. Nigerians derive from over 250 ethnic groups and languages. The traditional religion of Tiv, based on manipulations of forces by humans who have been entrusted by a creator God, remains strong within the Tiv populace. The Igbo are an essential part of the oil trade in Nigeria's southeastern region. Tiv only make up 3.5% of the Nigerian population, making them one of the smaller ethnic groups within the country. [26] Also, most Nigerians share a strong commitment to individual liberties and democracy. They include the Hausa-Fulani, Igbo, Ijaw, Ibibio, Kanuri, Tiv, Efik, Igala, Nupe etc. Nigeria is a fascinating country; in the 36 states and Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria, there are over 500 ethnic groups and over 500 languages spoken! Nigeria was ruled by various kingdoms and tribal rulers and became a colony of England in the 19th century. : The Cultural Consequences of Globalization. [25] The economic importance of Nigeria's cities has resulted in migrations of people from their traditional ethnic or cultural homeland to cities outside those territories. The adjective listed also often refers to the language spoken in … [26], There have been several major historical states in Nigeria that have influenced Nigerian society via their kings and their legal and taxation systems, and the use of religion to legitimize the power of the king and to unite the people. Rain . Re: What Do I Say My Nationality Is? Ethnic divisions persist in countries like Nigeria not because the ‘cultures’ of those countries are predisposed to ethnic strife, but as a result of a weak state. This was a two and a half year battle in which Igbo people were subjected to brutal conditions, many starving to death during this time. The regions in which Kanuri live are largely impractical for outsiders to reach. Their population is believed to be around 4% of Nigeria (approximately 4,000,000). Nigeria developed over time, under British colonial rule, as a federal state consisting of various ethnic groups. The Kanuri people are found in northeastern Nigeria. Ethnicity. The middle belt of Nigeria is well known for its diversity, with many of these remaining groups living in this part of the country. This ethnic group upholds many cultural traditions, including music and culture festivals, traditional Yoruba art, and conventional architecture. Today, Ibibio predominantly identify themselves as Christian. Along with the Hausa, Fulani people have also been a dominant presence in the sphere of Nigerian politics since independence in 1960. [25] The English language is the lingua franca of Nigerians. The Igbo people of Nigeria make up approximately 18% of the population. I propose that we all belong to one race which is the human race. Nigeria as a nation is a constituent of several nationalities. Other examples of ethnic groups include the Zulu tribe in South Africa as well as the Maasai tribe in Kenya.Examples of nationalities include Nigerian, Indian, Pakistani, American, British, Dutch, Brazilian, Norwegian etc.On the other hand, there are four different types of human races in existence today. [28] Southern Nigeria historically held several powerful states, including the Benin Empire and Oyo Empire, Ife Confederacy and several other Yoruba states. You are a Nigerian and if you completing the American passport application then u are an American.= Dual CItizenship. Although Nigeria is rich in her diverse ethnicity, many of these groups mentioned above live segregated from others. In other words, the Nigeria, we know today, is a collection of several ethnic nationalities that have coexisted as one nation. Race. Kingdoms of the past. There are over 250 ethnic groups and the major ones are Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa. Since the Fulani War (1804-1808), the Fulani people have been intertwined with the Hausa of Nigeria. One basic fact of the Nigerian social formation or the Nigerian State is its composition by multi-ethnic nationalities or multi-ethnic groups. Scarecrow Press, 2010. p. 283. Ethnicity in Nigeria Simon A. Rakov, Vassar College '92 (English 32, Fall 1990) The ethnicity of Nigeria is so varied that there is no definition of a Nigerian beyond that of someone who lives within the borders of the country (Ukpo, p. 19). Of sacrifices people, as oil exploration has subjected their land to ecological vulnerability 4,000,000.! Villages compose members of the population I Say My nationality is with 10... Raising cattle and other stock, growing crops and trading are cultural amongst! For their agricultural produce and the trading of this produce nationality of a colonial creation by the Nigerian,... 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